Expense reimbursement may seem like a small issue in comparison with the other areas of liability facing California employers, but the exposure for not appropriately reimbursing employees can be substantial. In Gattuso v. Harte-Hanks Shoppers, Inc., the California Supreme Court clarified the parameters of mileage reimbursement under California law, as well as the three different methods available for employers to reimburse employees for their mileage reimbursement. This Friday’s Five post discusses five issues employers need to know about automobile and mileage reimbursement under California law.
1. Mileage reimbursement based on IRS mileage rate is presumed to reimburse employee for all actual expenses
The IRS publishes standard mileage rates each year (and sometimes adjusts these rates during the year). The 2019 IRS mileage rate is as follows:
- 58 cents per mile for business miles driven, up 3.5 cents from 2018
- 20 cents per mile driven for medical or moving purposes, up 2 cents from 2018; and
- 14 cents per mile driven in service of charitable organizations
2. Mileage reimbursement rates do not necessarily have to be set at the IRS rate, but use caution
The California Supreme Court held that the reimbursement rate can be negotiated by parties as long as it fully reimburses the employee, and the amount does not have to be set at the IRS mileage rate. The Court also warned that employee cannot waive the right to be fully reimbursed for their actual expenses:
We agree that, as with other terms and conditions of employment, a mileage rate for automobile expense reimbursement may be a subject of negotiation and agreement between employer and employee. Under section 2804, however, any agreement made by the employee is null and void insofar as it waives the employee’s rights to full expense reimbursement under [Labor Code] section 2802.
3. Employees who challenge a mileage reimbursement amount set by the employer bear the burden in establishing their actual costs
If the employee challenges a predetermined amount set by the employer and agreed to by the employee, but then challenges the amount set later on, the employee bears the burden to show how the “amount that the employer has paid is less than the actual expenses that the employee has necessarily incurred for work-required automobile use (as calculated using the actual expense method), the employer must make up the difference.” Gattuso, at 479.
4. There are different methods employers can use to reimburse mileage
The Count in Gattuso explained that there are three different methods employers may use to reimburse employees mileage:
Actual expense method
In examining the different methods of reimbursement, the Supreme Court held that the actual expense method is the most accurate, but it is also the most burdensome for both the employer and the employee. Gattuso, at 478. Under the actual expense method, the parties calculate the automobile expenses that the employee actually and necessarily incurred and then the employer separately pays the employee that amount. The actual expenses of using an employee’s personal automobile for business purposes include: fuel, maintenance, repairs, insurance, registration, and depreciation.
Mileage reimbursement method
The Court recognized that employers may simplify calculating the amount owed to an employee by paying an amount based on a “total mileage driven.” Gattuso, at 479.
Under the mileage reimbursement method, the employee only needs to keep a record of the number of miles driven for job duties. The employer then multiplies the miles driven by a predetermined amount that approximates the per-mile cost of owning and operating an automobile. The Court recognized that the mileage rate agreed to between the employer and employee is “merely an approximation of actual expenses” and is less accurate than the actual expense method. It is important to note that while this amount can be negotiated, the employee still is unable to waive their right to reimbursement of their actual costs as mentioned above.
Lump sum payment method
Under the lump sum method, the employee need not submit any information to the employer about work-required miles driven or automobile expenses incurred. The employer merely pays an agreed fixed amount for automobile expense reimbursement. Gattuso, at 480. This type of lump sum payment is often labeled as a per diem, car allowance, or gas stipend.
In Gattuso, the Court made it clear that employers paying a lump sum amount have the extra burden of separately identifying and documenting the amounts that represent payment for labor performed and the amounts that represent reimbursement for business expenses.
5. Don’t forget about other expenses incurred in the “course and scope” of working
In addition to mileage, employers may also have to reimburse employees for other costs they incurred in driving their personal cars for business under Labor Code section 2802. In making the determination about whether an employee’s actions are in the “course and scope” of their job, courts examine whether the expense being sought by the employee is “not so unusual or startling that it would seem unfair to include loss or expense among other costs of the employer’s business.” Employers need to be mindful about reimbursing employees for cell phone use, printing and office supplies (if employee is required to maintain a home office or use personal printer for work), and other work-related expenses.